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Effectiveness of Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture to Improve Digestion of Fibrous Feeds: In vitro

DARWINSYAH LUBIS, E. WINA, B. HARYANTO and T. SUHARGIANTATMO
Research Institute for Animal Producton, PO BOX 221, Bogor 16002, Indonesia


ABSTRACT
Studies regarding the use of living microorganisms as supplement have been done in the last two decades to improve digestion process in the rumen. Many factors affect the use of the supplement, such as ration composition and physiological status of the animals. Materials used in this experiment are Aspergillus oryzae (AO) derived from ‘tauco’ (salty fermented soybean) and soybean sauce processing factories located in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi districts (15 sources), and also AO culture collections of the Indonesian Res. Inst. for Anim. Prod. (2 strains) and one strain from Indonesian Res. Inst. for Vet. Sci. in Bogor. The fungus was first isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), incubated at room temp. (26-300C) for 5 days for purification. The AO from PDA then inoculated into cooked rice enriched with mineral mix, oven-dried (40-450C), then ground and kept in refrigerator as a stock culture for further use. To produce more AO (scaling-up), the culture is inoculated in two basal media, i.e. soybean meal and ‘onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) enriched with mineral mix, dried and ground, then kept in refrigerator as A. oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC). Ground-dried King grass was used for in vitro digestion trials using sheep rumen fluid, which was not supplemented (control) or supplemented with the AOFC (10% w/w) from various sources. Three best AOFC (by origin) were chosen and used for further digestion study. The study was run using 2 (media) x 3 (AOFC origin) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design and Duncan’s MRT was applied to test differences among treatment means. Preliminary results indicated of the AOFC-SP66, -F172, and -CT4 used, the best AOFC was SP66, as it increased (P<0.05) fiber (NDF) digestion (10.5% better than the control). Total VFA productions were similar, but acetate content in the rumen fluid was lowered (P<0.05), while propionate and butyrate levels were alleviated (P<0.05) by the AOFC-SP66. Ammonia content was not affected by addition of AOFC. No differences were detected on digestion parameters between the two media used for AO cultivation, therefore, it is suggested to use ‘onggok’ for producing AOFC in large scale. VFAs composition pattern suggests that AOFC was more suitably used for meat rather than for milk production.

Key words: Fungus, King grass, digestibility, rumen fluid

Pengaruh Pakan Limbah Tempe Terhadap Ekskresi Derivat Purin dan Pasokan N-Mikroba pada Kambing Peranakan Etawah Laktasi

D.A. ASTUTI1 dan E. WINA2
1Bagian Fisiologi dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan,
Institut Pertanian Bogor
2Balai Penelitian Ternak, PO BOX 221, Bogor 16002, Indonesia


ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to evaluate excretion of purine derivatives and microbial–N supply in lactating Etawah crossbred goats fed with fermented soybean waste. Sixteen first lactating goats were randomly allotted into four dietary treatment groups that received 50% king grass plus R1: 50% concentrate, R2: 25% concentrate and 25% fresh tempe waste, R3: 25% concentrate and 25% fermented tempe waste, and R4: 25% concentrate and 25% gelatinizing of liquid tempe waste. Fermented tempe waste was made by fermentation of tempe waste (seed content of soybean) using Aspergillus niger, while for the gellatinizing of liquid tempe waste was made by gelatinized with maize flour. Protein balance studies were conducted during two week trial and at the end of the research. Urinary protein and purine derivatives were collected for analysis. Microbial–N supply was calculated from purine derivatives excretion. Results showed that nitrogen consumptions were significantly different between R4 and three other treatments and apparent digestible nitrogen in R3 were higher than that of R4 (P<0.05). The nitrogen retention in R1 and R3 were higher than that of R2 and R4. Urinary purine derivatives in this study showed that allantoin, xanthine and hypoxanthine in R3 were higher than that of R4, while R1 and R2 were the same and the highest uric acid excretion and total purine derivatives were observed in R3. Microbial–N supply were significantly different between all treatments where R3 was the highest. This research concluded that fermented soybean waste had the highest total purine derivatives excretion and microbial–N supply to the lactating Etawah crossbred goats.

Key words: Etawah crossbred goats, Aspergillus niger, allantoin, xanthin and hypoxanthin

Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

THALIB, A.; J. BESTARI; Y. WIDIAWATI; H. HAMID; D. SUHERMAN
Balai Penelitian Ternak
P.O. Box 210, Bogor 16002


ABSTRACT
Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP), II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr), and ID. Elephant grass (RG). All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein) and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate). The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours) by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%). Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation) confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%). All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05), except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri).

Key words: Rice straw, silage, microbes, cattle and buffalo

Effect of feeding methods of katuk (Sauropus androgynus) extract on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens

U. SANTOSO, T. SUTEKY, HERYANTO, dan SUNARTI
Jurusan Peternakan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Bengkulu
Jl. Raya Kandang Limun, Bengkulu


ABSTRACT
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0), whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P3), and basal diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 2.25 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P4). Experimental results showed that weight gain of P1 and P4 were significantly higher (P<0.05)>0.05), but the weight of intestine was significantly affected (P<0.05)>0.05). P4 had better meat color than P0, P1, dan P2 (P<0.05).>0.05). In conclusion, in order to improve performance and carcass quality, broiler chickens could be given katuk extract through diet plus drinking water at level of 4.5 g/kg diet plus 2.25 g/l drinking water.

Key words: Katuk extract, performance, carcass quality, abdominal fat

cDNA LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION AND ISOLATION OF GENES FOR CANDIDATE VACCINE ANTIGENS FROM CHRYSOMYA BEZZIANA (THE OLD WORLD SCREWWORM FLY)

TONY VUOCOLO1, FLORENTINA SUPRIYANTI2, SRI MUHARSINI3,
and GENE WIJFFELS1
1CSIRO Livestock Industries, Molecular Animal Genetics Centre,
Level 3, Gehrmann Laboratories,
The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia
2Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology, Institute of Technology Bandung
P.O. Box 1361, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3Research Institute for Veterinary Science
Jalan R.E. Martadinata 30, P.O. Box 151, Bogor 16114, Indonesia


ABSTRAK
Konstruksi dan pemanfaatan cDNA libraries untuk mengisolasi gen pengendali kandidat antigen untuk digunakan dalam produksi vaksin rekombinan terhadap lalat Chrysomya bezziana diuraikan. RNA diisolasi dan mRNA dimurnikan dari larva lalat Chrysomya bezziana stadium pertama dan ketiga dan dipakai untuk sintesis dua cDNA libraries dengan vektor bacteriophage λ ZAP express. Libraries ini kemudian disekrin dengan menggunakan Digoxigenin-labelled DNA probes yang diperoleh lewat dua pendekatan yang berbeda. Pertama, pendekatan homolog dengan menggunakan probes yang telah didesain berdasarkan gen membran peritrofik yang sebelumnya telah dikarakterisasi pada lalat penyebab myiasis yang masih mempunyai hubungan dekat dengan Lucilia cuprina. Kedua, pendekatan de novo dengan menggunakan informasi terminal amino dan sekuensi peptida internal yang diturunkan dari protein membran peritrofik lalat Chrysomya bezziana yang dimurnikan untuk menghasilkan DNA probes. Tiga gen membran peritrofik sudah diidentifikasi dan dikarakterisasi. Cb48 diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan pendekatan homolog, dan Cb15 dan Cb42 diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan pendekatan de novo. Identifikasi gen-gen pengendali kandidat antigen terhadap Chrysomya bezziana telah memungkinkan untuk memproduksi protein rekombinan yang dapat digunakan dalam uji vaksinasi.

Kata kunci: cDNA library, peritrofin, membran peritrofik, Chrysomya bezziana, Lucilia cuprina, vaksin

To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia) with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

T.B. MURDIATI', G. ADIWINATAI DAN D.HILDASARI2
1 Balai Penelitian Veteriner
Jalan R. E. Martadinata No.30, P. O. Box 151, Bogar 16114, Indonesia
2Jurusan farmasi, FMIPA -ISTN, Jakarta


ABSTRACT
Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05).

Key words: Morinda citrifolia, anthelmintic, Haemonchus contortus

Pesticide Residue on the Liver Organ of Cattle Raised at Garbage Disposal Area of Semarang City

M. ARIFIN, B. E. SETIANI dan B. DWILOKA
Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Diponegoro
Kampus Drh. R. Soejonokoesoemowardojo, Tembalang, Semarang 50275


ABSTARCT
Study on pesticide residues on liver organ of cattle raised at Semarang city garbage disposal area has been conducted through slaughtering 2 among 800 heads cattle that raised at the area. Cattle samples were selected purposively based on the age of 2-3 years old, and raised in the area since their birth. Residue analysis using gas chromatography indicated that liver organ of cattle raised at garbage disposal area of Semarang city containing both organochlorine and organophosphate residues. Organochlorine residue on this organ was detected as high as 0.00475 and 0.00210 p.p.m. for Aldrin and Heptaklor; respectively; whereas organophosphate residue was detected as high as 0.00290, 0.00235 and 0.00085 p.p.m Fenitrothion, Klorpirifos and Propenofos, respectively. It might be concluded that the pesticide residue was still under MRL value of Departemen Kesehatan RI.

Key words: Pesticide residue, liver, cattle, garbage

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